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History of Osteopathic Medicine

Andrew T. Still, an MD who was dissatisfied with the effectiveness of 19th century medicine, pioneered osteopathic medicine. He was one of the first in his time to study the attributes of good health to better understand disease. Dr. Still's philosophy focuses on the unity of all body parts and identifies the musculoskeletal system as a key element of health. He introduced the idea of returning the body to health through manipulation based on a thorough understanding of the body's systems.

In 1892, Dr. Still obtained a state charter to establish the first school of osteopathic medicine in Missouri. Despite a legislative attack on the osteopathic profession mounted by allopathic physicians (MDs), osteopathic medicine grew. Vermont was the first state to recognize osteopathic medicine in 1896. In 1897, the American Association for Advancement of Osteopathy (now the American Osteopathic Association) was founded in Kirksville, Missouri. Now, there are 19 schools of osteopathic medicine in the country.


The DO Difference

DOs are complete physicians who, along with MDs, are licensed to prescribe medication and perform surgery in all 50 states. But DOs bring something extra to the practice of medicine. Osteopathic physicians practice a "whole person" approach to medicine, treating the entire person rather than just the symptoms. With a focus on preventive health care, DOs help patients develop attitudes and lifestyles that don't just fight illness, but help prevent it, too.

DOs are trained to be doctors first, and specialists second. The majority of DOs are family-oriented primary care physicians. Many DOs practice in small towns and rural areas, where they often care for entire families and communities.


Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine (OMM)

DOs receive extra training in manipulating the musculoskeletal system - your body's interconnected system of nerves, muscles and bones that make up two-thirds of your body mass. This training in osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM) provides osteopathic physicians with a better understanding of how an injury or illness in one part of the body can affect another.

OMM is incorporated into the training of all osteopathic physicians. With OMM, DOs use their hands to diagnose injury and illness and to encourage your body's natural tendency toward good health. By combining all other medical procedures with OMM, DOs offer their patients the most comprehensive care available in medicine today.


Osteopathic Curriculum

The osteopathic curriculum involves four years of academic study, with an emphasis on preventive medicine and holistic patient care. DOs serve a one-year internship, gaining hands-on experience in family medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics-gynecology, pediatrics and surgery. This experience ensures that osteopathic physicians are first trained as primary care physicians - even if they plan to pursue a specialty. Many DOs then complete a residency program in a specialty area, which typically requires two to six years of additional training.


Osteopathic Medicine Resources
Applicants are encouraged to become familiar with the history, philosophy and practice of osteopathic medicine.

One good way to learn more about osteopathic medicine is through personal encounters. Opportunities to discuss the profession with a practicing osteopathic physician should be pursued. You are also cordially invited to visit the campus and speak with our faculty and students.

In addition, applicants are advised to read some of the literature about the osteopathic profession. The following resources are recommended:

Available from the American Osteopathic Association (AOA)
142 East Ontario Street, Chicago, IL 60611-3269; 1-800-621-1773:
· Osteopathic Medicine: An American Reformation, by George W. Northup, D.O., AOA, Chicago, IL, 1979.
· The Osteopathic Research: Growth and Development, by George W. Northup, D.O., AOA, Chicago, IL, 1987.

Available from Kirskville College of Osteopathic Medicine Bookstore
800 West Jefferson Street, Kirksville, MO 63501.
Others are available as well. Call 1-800-626-KCOM.
· Osteopathic Medicine: Past and Present, by Georgia Ann Walter, KCOM, Kirkville, MO, Second Edition, 1987.
· Two monthly journals are available in libraries or through the AOA - The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association (JAOA), and The D.O. Various pamphlets on osteopathic medicine may be obtained free from the AOA and the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine (AACOM), (301) 968-4175.


Information on this page was taken from the American Osteopathic Association's brochures, "What is a DO?" and "Osteopathic Medicine," and the Pennsylvania Osteopathic Medical Association's fact sheet, "History of the Osteopathic Profession."

You can also visit the Web site of the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) at

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